Now there’s a tough question to ask. Biologists, neuroscientists, and computer scientists will all give you slightly different answers, but in the end, one theme unites them: the brain is really, really, really complex.

Biology has made progress in brain-building — in late 2020, scientists at Cambridge announced they had…

This image by Da’Niyah Goodwin of a woman who, despite her words carrying the same meaning, is speaking in two vastly different styles of the English language. The shift in her choice of words, speaking style, and overall self-expression is called code-switching. This process is used by millions of people around the world who change their communication style to better suit their environment. Neuroscience and linguistics are only just scratching the surface of our current understanding of code-switching. In this article, we unpack the basics of code-switching: how it works, why it happens, and what we still have to learn. Image source:

Being raised in the Philippines, I was taught to practice and actively speak two languages. At home, my parents would speak to me in both my first language (Filipino) and my second language (English). Attending private school, I would immediately switch to solely speaking in English. I was often commended…

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Sleep Across All Species

In practically all species, lack of sleep leads to devastating health consequences, including (but not limited to) memory trouble, coordination issues, weight gain, heart disease, and even death. This conserved behavior of sleep, although still poorly understood, replenishes bodily functions and recharges the brain and body, allowing organisms the energy…

Take a moment to read this description of Afghanistan in Khaled Hosseini’s Kite Runner:

“But I remember it was a scorching summer day and I was driving up a rutted dirt road, nothing on either side but sunbaked bushes, gnarled, spiny tree trunks, and dried grass like pale straw. I…


We write on psychology, ethics, neuroscience, and the newest in neural engineering. @UC Berkeley

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